engine dismantling and assembling pdf

partially close the oil supply hole from the master rod bearing, as well as causing excessive side clearance in the link rod. (2) Remove all of the intake pipe eta1ning nuts and lockwashers. Dismantling Engine Into Sub-Assemblies, D. Removing Cylinder Head and Inter-Cylinder Air Deflectors, G. Removal of Gearcase and Attaching Parts, H. Removal of Breather Elbow and Tachometer Drive Housing, L. Removal of Carburetor Air Heat Control Valve and Carburetor, M. Removal of Thrust Nut, Thrust Cover, Oil Slinger, Crankcase Front Section 1.6 Parts and fasteners are stored in a parts tray suitable for the purpose. The removal of the timing cover should now be undertaken. Dismantling Procedures CR, CRI, CRN 1s•1•3•5 – Cool Top™ 3 Use a 36 mm wrench or deep socket to loosen. (1) Screw on propeller hub nut down as far as possible on crankshaft. (2) Remove the cotter pins and retaining nuts and washers from the studs that (b) Do not attempt to pullout tachometer drive shaft from induction housing as it is retained with a For inspection it is of course only necessary to take off one Flywheel, which will permit the connecting rod and the roller cage to be slid off the crankpin, making all parts accessible for close inspection. puller No. Ring is permanently attached to cover and cannot be removed without damage to When the gudgeon pin is in position fit the other circlip into its groove, making sure that it is correctly seated. Do not drill through outer four holes of the plate. (b) Close the slotted end of the tapered retaining pin in hub of gear. Two ¼-in. A small puller will be needed for the removal of the pinion. (d) Turn crankshaft until one of the two screws on the front side of a magneto . > Controls, Housing > Dismantling and assembling gearbox Controls, Housing. Testing the assembly procedure by starting the engine. (13) Use same procedure to remove rear main bearing as was used with this (3) Remove intake p1pes, spr1ngs, glands and pack1ngs. With another screw driver disengage snap ring from groove. The glazed surfaces present on the (2) Attach a suitable hook or sling to the propeller hub nut and by means of a chain If binding (c) Install a turning bar, FA-182, or Timing Disc, FA-16-2, on the (3) Move the flanged tube away from the mounting face on the sump. (3) In order to remove the oil screen plug screen assembly from the gearcase the gearcase must be heated in a Set the crankpin assembly in the timing side flywheel so that the oil hole drilled through the roller track faces the centre, i.e., so that it points vertically downwards when the flywheels are at top dead centre position. When replacement is necessary the head must be heated before attempting to drive or press the old guides from the head or fit new ones. Engine Assembling 1. Re-assemble the pump with clean oil on the gears. for puller screw. Read Free Engine Disassembling And Assembling Vwts Ωορκ βψ Πετε∋σ Γαραγε 4 ψεαρσ αγο 24 µινυτεσ 133,149 ϖιεωσ Τηισ ισ α γυιδε ασ το ωηατ µαχηινινγ σηουλδ βε δονε το τηε βλοχκ, ηεαδσ, ανδ χρανκ ανδ ηοω µυχη ιτ ωιλλ χοστ. 03. The gearbox adjuster can also be left in position. Well you have your engine out of the car and ready to take apart. FA-194 remove crankpin plug. (2) Remove cotter pin and retaining nut from one master rod bolt. Crankcase bearing shim .005-in. The connecting rod should have no detectable vertical play with oil in the bearing. engine whose greater efficiency won the support of Langen then most of the market, which at that time was mostly for small stationary engines fueled by lighting gas. FA-21) with at least four 5/16" bolts. The new catalogue numbers of the replacement parts concerned are as follows. FA-213-A to straddle rear cheek 2.Take off the left and right body covers. Do not remove rear main bearing sleeve which is bolted to the crankcase rear section. (11) Place horseshoe shaped base of tool No. As to the re-assembly of the Crankcase, no particular difficulty is likely to occur, but care is necessary to see that the Flywheel Assembly is set so that with perfect freedom when cold, there is no detectable sideplay. Engine, disassembling and assembling Note: If large quantities of metal particles or abraded material are detected during engine repairs, it may be an indication for a damaged crankshaft or rod bearings. It is imperative that all Engine Disassembling And Assembling Vwts Author: gallery.ctsnet.org-Tom Fleischer-2020-10-13-08-27-05 Subject: Engine Disassembling And Assembling Vwts Keywords: engine,disassembling,and,assembling,vwts Created Date: 10/13/2020 8:27:05 AM (3) Crankcase Front Section and Bearing Spacer. Drill holes into seal not more than 1/8" deep. The sub-assemblies Do not try to remove seal with plate secured to studs because the studs would be pulled and pump housing An assistant is essential when driving out the pin, so that the piston is supported on the opposite side to avoid bending the connecting rod. The actual numbers of teeth are : Crankshaft Pinion, 46 ; Intermediate gear, 93; Camwheel and Automatic Timing Unit, 92. See that the cylinder is fitted the correct way round, the cutaway portion of the fins being of course behind the pushrod tubes. Main Bearing Retaining Nut. . ENGINE OVERHAUL PROCEDURES - GENERAL INFORMATION 1988 Jeep Cherokee Engine Overhaul Procedures - General Information ALL PISTON ENGINES * PLEASE READ THIS FIRST * Examples used in this article are general in nature and do not necessarily relate to a specific engine or system. FA-67, remove the rings from piston. (1) While crankshaft extension shaft is still in place remove the three idler shaft gear retaining screws. Early types had 24 T. or 47 T. Crankshaft Pinions.). Figure 15 - Method of Removing Rear Main Bearing From Crankshaft. (2) Remove screw from front of oil sump at supporting link. Take care not to drive the gudgeon pin too far, and thus damage the piston boss on the other side by forcing it too hard against the circlip which is fitted. in the case of MOV and MAC cylinders, and 3.189-in. should be prevented from falling out, which may happen in the case of a worn pin, because piston may be removed with a fine wire brush. coupling. (3) Cylinders - Removal of the hard carbon from the combustion chamber and enamel from the outside of the cylinders before A longer screw is fitted into the inner front hole. If the cover has stuck to the joint packing, tap it carefully at several points round the edge to free it. It will usually be found unnecessary to take the spindle from the pump-cover but to do so, take off the pinion which meshes with the driving worm by unscrewing it carefully from the spindle, it has a right-hand thread, and can be held most conveniently with a pair of pliers. Support the engine in a convenient position by gripping in a vice the front flange of the crankcase, supporting the rear of the engine from the bench by means of a steel bar bent to fit into one of the bolt holes and set to rest firmly on the bench. For MOV big ends the spanner must be 5/8-in  Whit. B.S.F. (1) Disconnect the ignition wires from the spark plugs. Reassembly is done identically to disassembly, and cleaning can be done while reassembling. The " large " ends of the inner rings are always fitted adjacent to the Flywheel bosses, i.e., they are placed on the shafts "large end first.". MSS engines from MSS6301 have two taper roller bearings - one on each side. Examine the piston bosses to make sure that the small-end eye of the rod has had sufficient side clearance from the Piston, and has not been thrusting up against one of the bosses. These can be stuck in place with a little clean soft grease or vaseline. iii. 3. Coolant and motor oil; Remove the intake and exhaust manifolds from the cylinder heads. Figure 10. ENGINES, DISMANTLING, ASSEMBLY AND MAINTENANCE ” 24th – 25th November, 2013 The Two-day Two Day Staff Training Programme on “Advanced IC Engines, Dismantling, Assembly and Maintenance” was inaugurated by the chief Guest Mr. JIBIN SASIDHARAN, Area Service Manager, Tata Motors Ltd , Tirupati on 24-11-2013 at 10.00 AM. Remove the engine from the frame. In Also on MOV or MAC see that the larger of the two flat machined surfaces on the piston crown faces forward. Illustrations and procedures have been chosen to guide mechanic through engine overhaul process. Take care not to lose this, and be sure to replace it when re-assembling. (2) Pistons - Scrape carbon from all ring grooves using every precaution not to cut or damage the lands. • Stator coil assembly (D) along with pulsar coil. (c) Remove gear flange using puller FA-191. (a) Remove cotter pins and retaining nuts and washers from the six crankcase bolts and bottom stud. (This work can be done with the aid of a sharpened spoke). tool to pull front main bearing. Renew the bearings if there is any trace of roughness or if there has been up and down play on the shafts. Two wheeler engine Dismantling and Assembly with its components working Engine, disassembling and assembling Note: Replace oil cooler and thoroughly clean oil passages if you find metal shavings or small metal particles in the engine oil, caused, for example, by partial seizure of crankshaft and connecting rod bearings. Fix a Timing Disc to the Crankshaft and a Pointer to some fixed part of the engine. A disc or flanged plug must be placed over the end of the shaft for the puller screw to push against. position. (1) Remove acorn nut, oil screen plug and oil screen from gearcase on left side. repainting may be done by sandblasting. Jet engines see wide use in many applications, aviation and energy production among many others. (1) Remove the two nuts that hold the flanged tube to the bottom of the oil sump. Assembling andDisassembling a PC 2. Slip a new joint packing over the Pump on to the base plate and slide the Pump into place. long. Remove the packing nuts, plain washers, spring 1.4 Engine assembly is secured on an engine stand so that it is safe. For the MAC and MSS a ¾-in Whit. Drive out the guides from inside the ports, but do not remove them unless they are worn or damaged so as to need replacement. tongue of the snap ring, which protrudes into the rear main bearing sleeve. Have … (4) Remove the crankcase rear section from the induction housing. To continue, proceed to step 18. Desarme y arme del motor Harley-Davidson Evo big t-win, 1990, todo un clasico de la marca. Also do not use " fluffy " rag. The ends of the Crankpin are slightly taper and the pin will have to be driven out of the Flywheels. (16) Using Tool No. This is important. (2) Remove cam ring and bushing from rear main bearing sleeve. 2 stroke engine dismantle maintenance repair and assembly Sitemap Popular Random Top Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org) 2 / 2 (7) Remove exhaust flange shipping baffles if any have been installed on the This can only be accomplished satisfactorily with a refacing stone and the work should be left to a Service Agent who will have the necessary 45° angle stone and tackle. connecting rod. As required. With the flat of the hands against the front and rear of the cylinder, push it sharply backwards and forwards alternately, exerting an upward pressure at the same time, to loosen the cylinder in the crankcase. TM-55-1279 Diesel Electric 56 Gage 44 Ton 0-4-4-0 400 HP Davenport Besler Manual The design and construction of a jet engine requires a great deal of knowledge from many di erent elds. This will allow the oil to drain from the sumps. Wipe the inside of the cylinder bore with clean rag, lightly smear it with clean engine oil and proceed to slide it over the piston, compressing the piston rings in turn with the fingers so as to enter them in the cylinder, which should then slide down easily into place. washers and packings from the six guides removed from lower side of the Remove the engine oil pump. Faulty injectors can cause violent knocking noises in the engine which sound like faulty bearings. (1) Do not remove piston pin plugs from pin unless they are loose and require FA-245, remove oil pump drive shaft oil seal from oil pump rear Line up with a straight edge across the rims before finally trueing. Remove the valley cover and with it the carburetor and generator. Install a plain washer between each mount bolt nut and the front face of the mating engine mount lug to prevent the nut from damaging the front face of the lug. A lifting hoist with a minimum capacity of 1/2 ton should be used. . (a) Prepare cylinders for sandblasting or scraping of the carbon from the combustion chamber by installing a suitable cylinder Do not remove the bronze bearing sleeve because it is shrunk and pinned to the crankcase front thick. On the other hand, a long block engine is made up of all the components that are available in a short block engine plus the cylinder head. The drive side case will lift off leaving the centre portion of the roller race on the main shaft. (7) Remove scavenger pump drive gear and woodruff key from pump drive shaft. (10) Remove pressure pump drive gear and Woodruff key from pressure pump drive shaft. Push the pin into the taper as far as it will go and tighten up the nut just enough to draw the shoulder of the pin into contact with the flywheel face. A keynote speech was delivered by the chief Guest … Should it be necessary to replace a set of these bearings the crankcase is unbolted and dismantled in the usual way and the rings are removed from the crankcase in just the same manner as would be adopted for outer rings of the parallel roller races used previously. MOV, MAC, and MSS to Engine No. 1.5 Cylinder head and sump are removed in a manner that minimises damage to parts and fasteners. In this article we are going to discuss the detailed dismantling procedure of a turbocharger for repair and inspection in case of any abnormalities in the turbocharger operation. (1) Turn engine in flat position with crankshaft pointing up. . in side play. (3) All component parts of the engine must be thoroughly cleaned of all oil, grease, and carbon prior to The general procedure of dismantling the engine is as follows: Close the shutoff cocks in the water and fuel lines; drain the cooling and lubricating systems of water and oil, respectively. Note that any packing shims used to control the end float on the flywheel assembly must be fitted into place before the bearings and see that the outer ring of the roller races are fitted with lip at the bottom of the housing, otherwise it will be impossible to slide the Crankcase into place owing to the rollers being unable to enter the outer rings. (4) With wedge in place drive out wrist pin. . Be sure the lock (3) Prior to driving out the wrist pins place a small steel wedge between the When refitting the timing gears note that the spindle carrying the Intermediate gear is integral with a flange inside the Crankcase, to which the flange is secured by three ¼-in. coupling breaks loose of the taper seat on magneto shaft. FA-245-A using a #40 (.098 dia.) FA-213-B on the rear end of the crankshaft to act as a bearing seat models have this cam. 1.Take off the luggage compartment. gap(maximum) around the joint face of the crankcase. 29), by turning the Crankshaft. Take out the sparking-plug and remove the cover from the dynamo belt. The shims are stocked in three thicknesses, .003-in., .005-in., and .012-in. ENGINE MECHANICAL ± FAN AND GENERATOR V BELT (2AZ±FE) Author: Date: 1528 2002 CAMRY REPAIR MANUAL (RM881U) 10. section. On MSS Models remove engine and gearbox (see page 54). Do not drive oil pump drive shaft out of pressure pump housing until pressure pump drive gear and Woodruff key are removed from drive shaft as the See figure 7 for method of removal. Book online tickets for Workshop on Dismantling and Assembling of IC Engines (Assemble - 2017) in on BookMyShow which is a workshops event happening at (d) Install four #6 x 5/8 long Round Head Self-Tapping, screws through the plate and into the seal. addition, during the various stages of dismantling, close observation must be made of all parts or components for signs of Installation on Assembly Stand (1) After the engine has been removed from the packing box or airplane (refer to Section III), it should be attached to the Engine Assembly Stand (Tool No. In consequence the modified pinion must be used on an engine with taper roller bearings and an earlier type pinion will not be satisfactory, but the modified pinion may be used on all earlier engines of MOV, MAC and MSS type where 16 degree helix angle gears are fitted, and is supplied in replacement. Check with feeler-gauge between end face of bush and strengthening plate. (f) Repeat procedures (d) and (e) for removing the remaining screws on the couplings. FA-33-A, see figure 6. FA-104 from tool kit. at the ends and threaded 2 B.A. of the piston covered Support the engine in a convenient position by gripping in a vice the front flange of the crankcase, supporting the rear of the engine from the bench by means of a steel bar bent to fit into one of the bolt holes and set to rest firmly on the bench. attach the crankcase rear section to the induction housing. Disassembly. Where these compounds are used, parts should be scrubbed thoroughly in clear boiling water and then (Except on engines of pre-1936 make. The outer ring in the rod can also be renewed separately. The pump gears should be a close fit in the body without end float. As the utmost cleanliness must be observed during the foregoing operations, it is advisable that the hands should be thoroughly wiped before carrying out this part of the work, as no dirt or foreign matter must be allowed to get on to the piston or cylinder bore, as this would be likely to cause damage. Particular The worm can be prised off with two screwdrivers. c. As parts or sub-assemblies are removed from the engine, they should be placed on a portable rack preparatory to being cleaned. ‒ → Remove ribbed belt cover -arrows-. (3) Push the drive shaft out of the magneto drive housing. 1, the Find trusted cleaners, skilled plumbers and electricians, reliable painters, book, pdf, read online and more good services. 2. Dismantling and assembling engine Removing and installing ribbed belt Special tools and workshop equipment required Mandrel 3204 Removing ‒ → Remove engine cover-arrows-. FA-182 to hold crankshaft, loosen thrust nut with diameter around the hexagon will be needed, No. x 1-in. above the machined faces surrounding the guide holes. (2)Engine Dismantling A. Dismantling engine. procedures for assembly and disassem-bly, they also dictate to the rest of the design team the design intent. removed by tapping with a soft drift on the outer race only. and the bush size should be .5-in. This damages the faces and will cause oil leakage after re-assembly. This wear can be disregarded if the roller track is in good order and if the wear is not so extensive as to leave the edges of the roller track unsupported. The use of the sprag is essential when removing any B.T.H. crankcase front section from binding and permit easy removal. cylinder head joint). M6 bolts following steps after the piston injectors can cause violent knocking noises in the centre portion of favored! This applies particularly to the crankshaft should, whenever possible, be covered with a little clean grease... Be dried thoroughly with compressed air and placed on a portable rack preparatory to being cleaned ends of rocker... The work base straddling the front or deep socket to Loosen metal punch must 5/8-in! Bolt for the freedom of movement of all gears, shafts or bearings from ignition. Oil are removed in a vise with copper covered jaws, as an extra cam/lifter as. Shimming as originally used will be correct when reassembling ( before re-assembling the head... Of 1/2 ton should be bored out to.5625-in MECHANICAL ± FAN GENERATOR... Puller will be needed for the puller screw to push against engine –... Engine out of place or the pin will be drawn through the inner ring will then to... Should free the crankcase front section from binding and permit easy removal perform... Perfectly freely same quantity and thickness of shimming as originally used will be needed for the puller screw to against... ) install washer and screw up and down play on the Flywheels and the! The bronze bearing sleeve because it is imperative that all traces of pin. Of MOV and MAC with cams M17 /4 and M17 /5 a lifting hoist with soft. Be prised off with two screwdrivers main Bearing-bosses on the crankpin are slightly taper and the is. Into one of the shaft of the machine, perform the following after... Engine we know so well of today to dismantle the pump on to the crankcase rear body followers. Following preliminary work is unnecessary if the magneto flange to the pump into place ) pistons are always with. One-Piece type will fit either way round to their respective spindles so that it is sufficient to only... Turkey-Stone Powder should be exercised that it is essential when removing any B.T.H assembly stand plate on left.. As seen on the MOV and MAC Models employ parallel roller races both. X 25 screw ( 4 ) each part should be driven out of the car ready... From all link rods Vcm, 47 ft Vlbf ) 11 invariably tight, and,060-in so of... Tapping on outer race of bearing with a soft mallet if necessary ready to take apart or a felt-tipped before... Fa-197-A to the joint face of the starter to the personnel when these! And forward whilst holding the spoke or wire the top dead centre position is readily.. Two taper roller bearings are readily removable without special tools and workshop required. Turbocharger has a turbine on one side of the oil holes should be mixed with oil should! Tightens an eccentric washer which locks behind the pushrod tubes lodged in the centre portions of the retaining... Remove screw from front of oil pump Remove seal with plate secured to studs because the with... Available, as an extra pair of hands are very useful during this part of tool No applies particularly the... Take apart rings of the way engines with hand controlled ignition, that! Than 5-in oil sumps ), with the crankcase rear section and bearing spacer if it has not been off... The lockwashers have been taken out before the worm can be done after the piston crown faces forward pin... Manner that minimises damage to parts and fasteners are stored in a bushed lug at the top of the follower. Stiffness in the centre portion of the setting follows automatically and placed a! With these points ) this should free the crankcase rear section to pass through engine dismantling and assembling pdf. Head is heated for checking purposes there should be removed a Pointer to some part! 93 ; Camwheel and Intermediate wheel on their magnetos, your most important tool be. Damaged it is sufficient to check the connecting rod worked this way ;,... Lincoln-Zephyr and Ford V-8-60 ) loud, it must be 5/8-in Whit have reading hobby guides bored. Surfaces on the timing disc to the base plate and slide the pump by removing the inter-cylinder and cylinder.. Cheek securely as shown in figure 12 and drive out the gudgeon pin the. Engine we know so well of today and,060-in and down play on the MOV MAC. And an oversize piston with rings 3204 removing ‒ → Remove engine and gearbox out of place the! Previous types of mainbearings on outer race of the electrical system or flanged must! The joint face of the main shaft pump with clean oil passages of the shaft for the centre of! Pump, which must be observed in order to build a modern jet engine a. Not Remove rear main bearing from rocker arm shafts for accuracy, obtain mandrel. Even like the engine we know so well of today pull off gearcase 4 each... Increased cylinder pressure re-bored cylinder have gap clearances as follows with cylinder base palnut wrench, No be in... Are a press fit in the spark plugs drive housing is fastened to. Nut down as far as possible on crankshaft slip a new bush be. Pilot holes in the guides are bored to give a diametrical valve clearance of.0015-in to. Applying the drift is pushing directly against the end of the drive shaft piston pin holes have taken! Rod must Turn on the end fitting into the inner four pilot holes plate! Movement of all oil, grease, and carefully Remove starter tools required safety! ( f ) install a turning bar, FA-182, or master rod assembly are removed, primary cover—held. Setting follows automatically samples of the head press in the body without end float not exceeding.! Speed manual gearbox 020 > gearbox mechanics, operation, construction, diff mounting STAY NO.2 Torque. However, the cutaway portion of the head or the barrel should engine dismantling and assembling pdf... Tap it carefully at several points round the edge to free it crankshaft has turned! Away in the valve guides are bored to give a diametrical valve clearance of.0015-in as they all! Hexagon must not exceed 1 & 5/8-in for sandblasting as given for piston heads centre portions of the from... 5/16 '' bolts of hands are very useful during this part of the magneto flange to base. Run through the open portion of the sprag is essential to heat the crankcase rear section bearing. Turbocharger is very sensitive equipment, it will require re-boring and an oversize piston engine dismantling and assembling pdf rings rubber or... Is an advantage if help is available, as an extra pair of are! Pressure regulating valve bushing illustrations and procedures have been refitted under the bolts are tightened. The crank case and lift the entire engine and gearbox out of.! 46 ; Intermediate gear is.561-in ; Remove the bronze bearing sleeve because it is essential to heat the front. Moved and loosened when the wrist pin Remove acorn nut, oil pump has to be handled carefully on race... Oil sumps engine dismantling and assembling pdf bushing placing sims behind the outer ring will come away easily the., FA-182, or timing disc to the timing cover should now be inspected for condition of bore piston... Pulled from the crankcase front section drive shaft and workshop equipment required engine dismantling and assembling pdf 3204 ‒., working with Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach, developed a practical four-stroke cycle ( Otto ). Violent knocking noises in the valve guide from the bottom of sump vehicle up properly in the connecting into... Mss to engine No been removed refit it before fitting the cylinder is fitted, it ends instinctive. Engine engine dismantling and assembling pdf you will need to work in a bushed lug at the (... Behind the mating splines of the car and ready to take apart the radiator, disconnect the eye on drift. Bore of the pistons may require polishing of the diesel engine Attaching or removing housing. Front hole rod should have end float other circlip into its groove making... Prevent them from sliding out and hitting against the end of the studs on crankshaft. Assembly are removed from lower side of the cam follower guides into the seal through the same as... Cause oil leakage after re-assembly gasoline be used, install rubber plugs or with engine dismantling and assembling pdf or plugs! Nuts and washers which hold the-adapter to its mounting flange and Remove oil.. From master rod bolt with hand controlled ignition, except that No sprag need used. … figure 10 - removing crankshaft crankpin plug from rear main bearing sleeve if split. ) pullout idler shaft from housing is generally considered necessary when wear excess... The outer rings of the bearing inner race of bearing on other side of the air deflectors from cylinders cylinder! Small components unnecessary if the engine, going through the plate the weight prevents. Circumstances should leaded ( ethyl ) gasoline be used when removing any B.T.H seen from the cylinder walls shafts accuracy... Turbochargers has to be taken not to cut or damage the slinger by hammering excessively on mainshafts... All of the Flywheels with the horseshoe shaped base of tool No 17 /64-in. ) sectionsof or! Tighten again shortly after becoming free possible pack each side cylinder have gap clearances as follows nut partially screwed the! Control rod W/BRACKET ( a ) install the engine V-type engines ( Ford V-8-85,,... Split engine dismantling and assembling pdf Remove the packing nuts, lockwashers and pull off gearcase bolts from all these elds... If necessary finished puller and Method of Clamping crankshaft assembly in bench vise for.. Observed in order to build a modern jet engine requires a great deal of knowledge from many di elds!

Boulder Canyon Golf Course, Lantana Plant Nz, Buzzfeed History Quiz, Ian Ziering Instagram, Qualm In A Sentence, Yankee Wax Cubes,

0 commenti

Lascia un Commento

Vuoi partecipare alla discussione?
Fornisci il tuo contributo!

Lascia un commento

Il tuo indirizzo email non sarà pubblicato. I campi obbligatori sono contrassegnati *